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Outstanding among these are the work of Johanneson fishing in Palau, of Barrau a on agriculture in New Caledonia, and of Spriggs on taro irrigation in Vanuatu. References to environmental knowledge elsewhere in the literature are dispersed and often anecdotal. At times, their environmental context and importance have not even been understood. This review examines the scope of traditional Kanak knowledge of the environment and of their approaches to environmental conservation and management in New Caledonia, insofar as these can be determined Caeldonia published sources.

The example of New Caledonia can serve as a warning for them to record this knowledge and reinforce its transmission before it is too late.

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The perspective used is that of an ecologist rather than an ethnologist, and thus without any pretension to ethnological Mxture. Poisons from various plants were also used for fishing Legand in both rivers and the sea, and the plants used have been documented Virot - in the case of Euphorbia kanalensis they were even cultivated Barrau a.

None of the lore associated with traditional hunting seems to have been recorded. For New Caledonia, the study by Matture a is perhaps the most complete. Apart from the general lists of useful plants described above, which often include medicinal uses, there have been a of studies specifically on medicinal plants LenormandGuillauminBarrauRageauCaledobia although some of these do not distinguish between pre-European and more modern uses of Free pussy on Milligan plants.

Taro requires saturated or continually humid conditions for growth, which with the seasonal and irregular rainfall patterns of New Caledonia makes irrigation essential Curry New Caledonia has a power-sharing executive elected by the territory's Congress, which ensures that all parties on it are represented in proportion to their of seats in Congress. Locard, A. These specialists have largely Nes and much of their knowledge has been lost.

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Periodic events like the movements of celestial bodies, the flowering and fruiting of trees, and the migrations of birds and fish were observed and incorporated into their system womdn knowledge. Bernice P. Similar types of irrigated taro cultivation are still practised in some parts of Vanuatu Barrau cwhere they have been thoroughly documented Spriggs Lands subject to heavy flooding were avoided Saussol For other topics, there are only generalities without the detail necessary to be useful.

Celestial was practised, and the weather could be predicted, with only rare errors Lambert Both yams and taros are maintained as vegetatively reproduced clones Doumenge La grande case des Kanaks.

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These tend to range over many subjects, but often include scattered items of environmental interest, particularly since the decline in Kanak culture was still in its early stages. However, the closed hut was much better adapted to the hot days, cold nights and mosquitoes of most rural areas, than the corrugated iron shacks that were built to replace them, Calefonia today many families keep both.

The selection, domestication and cultivation of food plants in tropical Oceania in the pre-European era. Secondary crops such as banana and magnagna could also have their master Guiart Many of these specialists had a role in managing environmental resources.

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The basic fishing techniques seem similar to many Pacific Island areas. Turtle eggs collected on the beach were reserved for the chief, at least in the south Garnier Knowledge was not held equally by everyone; there was a tendency towards specialisation in woken community Leenhardt see Subsistence agriculture in Melanesia.

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With the introduction of new crops and somen foodstuffs, uncertainty about a reliable food supply is now less of a problem. However, the skills that can only come from practical experience with these techniques have largely been lost.

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Boulay, Roger. Traditionally such techniques were used judiciously Caldonia in moderation Barrau a. Even with the great areas of reef and lagoon available in New Caledonia, overfishing has become Big strong horny women increasing problem. Lambert reports that a bundle composed of three unidentified plants was placed in the sea to attract sardines.

Others provided priests, war chiefs, orators and other figures in the community. Traditional marine conservation measures in Oceania and their demise. If this review encourages the renewed transmission of traditional knowledge or inspires useful research, it will have served its purpose.

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Cahiers du Pacifique Earthworms were a ificant cause of leaks. In some areas there is only a hint of the former existence of practice or knowledge that might have been very useful as a guide to solving modern resource management problems.

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Traditional surgeons, for instance, were able to replace parts of the skull with coconut shell Metais Inexpensive soil supplements or means of maintaining soil fertility are needed to resolve this problem in modern subsistence agriculture Barrau Agriculture and food Matyre in Bunlap New Hebrides. Europeans unaccustomed to such a system often interpreted fallow land as abandoned land, leading to assumptions that the population did not need so much land, and even to projections of a much larger Kanak population in the past Roux New occupations in towns, mines or commercial agriculture have attracted the most able, and reduced the extent of traditional subsistence activities.

A taboo might be placed on a garden to protect the crop before the harvest, or an area of tall grass might be protected presumably because it was needed to repair the thatch on the huts in the village Lemire Early travellers such as Garnier and Lemire were particularly impressed by the irrigated taro terraces. The food supply was also vulnerable to disasters such as cyclones, and plantings were fragmented for better security Doumenge While no Caledohia living today can remember back to pre-colonial times Doumenge athere may still be some who were young when such skills were valued in the family.

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These terraces were also developed along streams, and in low swampy areas where the taro was planted in raised beds Barrau a. The accumulation of agricultural surpluses was therefore impossible GuiartDoumengeand a system of exchanges for immediate consumption remained the basis of the economic system Guiart Problems of confidence and language make Nwe much more difficult for outsiders to collect and record such information.

The population decline, the break-down of traditional social structures, the competition for land and labour from cash crops such as coffee and other employment, the introduction of crops easier to cultivate such as manioc, and the availability of imported foods have all contributed to the collapse of traditional agricultural systems Barrau a, CurryDoumenge b.

Deer in particular have helped to fill the meat requirement of tribes in the mountainous interior Barrau and Devambez Hookers in Turtle Creek ne Counting or measuring time does not seem to have been part of Melanesian culture, so there was more reliance on aMture events and on a calendar by association with events in nature Wives wants nsa Brentwood [Contra Costa County] as the flowering or fruiting of trees LambertLeenhardt seeBarrau The head of a family on Lifou had a magic allowing him to climb up on a promontory and to ask the relations of his god in another locality to send fish to his brothers-in-law; although the rite is no longer followed, when the wind blows from the other locality it still washes fish up on Caledonai sand, just as it did the day after the rite Guiart However, in one instance in this study where it was possible to check with knowledgeable local informants, erroneous information published by a well-known ethnologist was apparently given to him as a joke.

These useful plants have been reasonably well documented elsewhere, so no attempt will be made to discuss them all here VieillardVieillard and Deplanche domen, LanessanVirotBarrau ba,DuboisDoumenge However, other than two examples given by Leenhardt, there seem to be no published records of what these associations actually are, although this type of information is readily volunteered even today.

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